Tuesday, August 25, 2020

Journal Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Diary - Assignment Example Since this is valid, the creator can be supposed to be tenable. The creator appears to be exceptionally dependable. This is a direct result of how the focuses are brought out in the article. Dependability of the creator can be seen when the creator shows the earnestness associated with creature right psychological oppression by giving factual information. The creator can likewise be trusted on the grounds that they survey the circumstance and contrast it and future prospects. Here, the creator expresses that if creature testing isn't allowed, millions will kick the bucket since examination won't be attempted. This data is credible. Sound rationale is utilized in the contention. This is a direct result of specific cases utilized rationale. For example, it is consistent that individuals would bite the dust if drugs are not created. The general case being made is that if researchers are restricted from utilizing creatures in their exploration tests, creation of therapeutic medications won't be conceivable and millions would bite the dust therefore. The data gave is solid since it gives information that is bolstered by important proof. The general data has been imparted fittingly making it

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Apush Sample Frqs Essay

1. The French and Indian War (1754-1763) modified the connection among Britain and its North American provinces. Evaluate this change as to TWO of the accompanying in the period somewhere in the range of 1763 and 1775. Land procurement ​Politics ​Economics 2. Assess the degree to which the Articles of Confederation were viable in taking care of the issues that stood up to the new country. 3. In spite of the fact that the intensity of the national government expanded during the early republic, this advancement regularly confronted genuine restriction. Think about the intentions and adequacy of those contradicted to the developing intensity of the national government in TWO of the accompanying. Bourbon Rebellion, 1794 Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions, 1798-1799 Hartford Convention, 1814-1815 Invalidation Crisis, 1832-1833 4. Break down the commitments of TWO of the accompanying in setting up a steady government after the appropriation of the Constitution. John Adams ​Thomas Jefferson ​George Washington (2002) 5. Dissect the degree to which TWO of the accompanying impacted the improvement of majority rules system somewhere in the range of 1820 and 1840. Jacksonian monetary approach Changes in appointive legislative issues Second Great Awakening Westbound development 6. The Jacksonian Period (1824-1848) has been praised as the time of the â€Å"common man.† To what degree did the period satisfy its portrayal? Think about TWO of the accompanying in your reaction. Monetary advancement ​Politics ​Reform developments 7. In what ways did the Second Great Awakening in the North impact TWO of the accompanying? Abolitionism Balance The faction of family life Idealistic people group 8. In spite of the fact that Americans saw Manifest Destiny as a kind development, it was in actuality a forceful government sought after to the detriment of others. Survey the legitimacy of this announcement with explicit reference to American expansionism in the 1840’s. 9. Examine the adequacy of political trade off in lessening sectional strains in the period 1820-1861. 10. Talk about the political, financial, and social changes presented in the South somewhere in the range of 1864 and 1877. What exactly degree did these changes endure the Compromise of 1877? 11. Examine the effect of any TWO of the accompanying on the American modern specialist somewhere in the range of 1865 and 1900. Government activities ​Labor Unions ​Immigration ​Technology changes 12. Dissect the explanations behind the development of the Populist development in the late nineteenth century.

Tuesday, July 28, 2020

How You Can Manage Psychosocial Stress

How You Can Manage Psychosocial Stress Stress Management Print How You Can Manage Psychosocial Stress By Elizabeth Scott, MS twitter Elizabeth Scott, MS, is a wellness coach specializing in stress management and quality of life, and the author of 8 Keys to Stress Management. Learn about our editorial policy Elizabeth Scott, MS Medically reviewed by Medically reviewed by Carly Snyder, MD on November 12, 2019 facebook twitter linkedin Carly Snyder, MD is a reproductive and perinatal psychiatrist who combines traditional psychiatry with integrative medicine-based treatments.   Learn about our Medical Review Board Carly Snyder, MD on November 12, 2019 istockphoto   More in Stress Management Effects on Health Management Techniques Situational Stress Job Stress Household Stress Relationship Stress Psychosocial stress affects most of us from time to time and can take a significant toll. It is the result of a cognitive appraisal (your mental interpretation) of what is at stake and what can be done about it. More simply put, psychosocial stress results when we look at a perceived social threat in our lives (real or even imagined) and discern that it may require resources we dont have. What Is Psychosocial Stress? Examples of psychosocial stress can include anything that translates to a perceived threat to our social status, social esteem, respect, and/or acceptance within a group; threat to our self-worth; or a threat that we feel we have no control over. All of these threats can lead to a stress response in the body.  These can be some of the most taxing stressors to deal with, as they can make us feel unsupported and alienated.  This can make it more difficult to cope. When psychosocial stress triggers a stress response, the body releases a group of stress hormones including cortisol, epinephrine (or adrenalin) and dopamine, which leads to a burst of energy as well as other changes in the body (see this article on the fight-or-flight response for more.) The changes brought about by stress hormones can be helpful in the short term, but can be damaging in the long run. For example, cortisol can improve the body’s functioning by increasing available energy (so that fighting or fleeing is more possible) but can lead to suppression of the immune system as well as a host of other effects. Decoding Your Fight or Flight Stress Response Epinephrine can also mobilize energy, but create negative psychological and physical outcomes with prolonged exposure. Thats why its important to manage psychosocial stress in our lives so that the stress response is only triggered when necessary. Its also important to learn stress relief techniques to effectively reverse the stress response so we dont experience prolonged states of stress  or chronic stress. There are several ways to manage psychosocial stress, because it involves factors on the outside (what were dealing with) and the inside (our thoughts about it), and can affect multiple areas of our lives.  Here are some strategies that can help. Develop Your Conflict Resolution Skills Conflict is an almost inevitable part of a relationship.  People are going to have disagreements and are going to want different things.  The way we manage conflict can create significant psychosocial stress but if you can work on your conflict resolution skills, that can help at least half of the equation: you can change what you bring to the situation, you can diffuse some of the negativity, and you can model healthier behavior.  This can greatly minimize the stress felt by all involved. Effective Conflict Resolution Skills Focus on Supportive Friends and Avoid Drama If you think about it, you know who you can trust to support you and who you cant.  Simply spending more time with those who make your life easier and minimizing time spent with those who make you feel stressed can cut down on a lot of the psychosocial stress you experience.  It wont cut out all of the drama you experience, but it can stop a lot of it. Try a Shift in Perspective Sometimes we feel angered or threatened by things that dont affect us that much, and the stress we feel as a result isnt necessary.  Changing how you look at something, or just shifting what you focus on can make a difference in your stress levels--it can make something that seems like a big deal feel less so.  When put in a different perspective, everything can feel less stressful. Shift Your Perspective and Change Your Life Find Stress Management Strategies That Work for You Finding ways to manage your overall stress level can help you to be less reactive to psychosocial stress, or any specific stressor.  The key is to find something that works well for you and something that fits well in your life and with your personality.

Friday, May 22, 2020

Fear of Flying Essay - 744 Words

How Lauren may have learned of her Fear of Flying? How Lauren learned she had a fear in flying? Using the Classical Conditioning theory the possibilities could be endless. Classical conditioning in simple terms is the method in which one determines why and the cause of a condition as well as what has brought it about. There are many stimulus both conditioned and unconditioned that can cause fear or other problems, but the major reason for causes regarding the fear of flying has been mentioned in several articles regarding anxiety disorders. Fear of flying is created by the unconscious mind as a protective mechanism. When using the neutral stimulus explanation, Lauren may not have had a relevant response of interest. Lauren may†¦show more content†¦Neutral stimulus would have no bearing in Laurens case if this were only thing involved. Lauren may have experienced an unconditioned stimulus (an example of this could be from seeing a plane crash on the news, hearing someone talking about their fear to fly or about having a bad experience when they flew). The unconditioned response to this could have left Lauren with the opinion that it was not the safe to fly, but we do not have enough information to conclude that this is true or not. Lauren could have had a condition stimulus (example experiencing problems while flying) and if this were the case it would cause Lauren to develop a condition response. The condition response would probably be that Lauren has already convinced herself that every other time she has flown she had had a bad experience and therefore why should it be anything different. Even though the original onset my have been on or off a plane, the fear can also be triggered by events: reading about ill-fated flights; viewing crash scenes on TV. The following are some other possible fear factors: • Heights • Enclosed spaces • Crowded conditions • Sitting in hot, stale air • Sitting and waiting too long • Not understanding all the strange actions, sounds, and sensation occurring around Lauren • Worrying about the dangers of turbulence • Being dependent on unknown mechanical things to maintain your safety • Being dependent on an unknown pilots judgments. •Show MoreRelatedEssay on Fear of Flying and Classical Conditioning Theory695 Words   |  3 PagesLauren may have learned of her Fear of Flying? How Lauren learned she had a fear in flying? Using the Classical Conditioning theory the possibilities could be endless. Classical conditioning in simple terms is the method in which one determines why and the cause of a condition as well as what has brought it about. There are many stimulus both conditioned and unconditioned that can cause fear or other problems, but the major reason for causes regarding the fear of flying has been mentioned in severalRead MoreThe Search for Sexual Fulfillment in Fear of Flying by Erica Jong900 Words   |  4 PagesFear of Flying by Erica Jong focuses on a 29-year-old poet named Isadora married for a second time to an austere psychiatrist named Bennett. Isadora constantly looks for sexual and emotional fulfillment. Isadora was involved in sexual fantasies with other men even though she was married. She ditches her husband, Bennett at a conference in Vienna only to run off with Adrian Goodlove, whose last name matches appropriately. Goodlove was a m an full of sexual lust. Jong covers in Fear of Flying threesomesRead MorePersonal Narrative: Overcoming My Fear of Flying Essay examples795 Words   |  4 PagesAs a kid I was tough, I did anything and everything. But flying scared me. I was in Hawaii and flying was unavoidable if you wanted to go anywhere. My father lived in California so when I decided to visit him I also had to face my fear and fly over the ocean. My want to see my father had to be stronger than my fear or I may never have never had the chance to know him. It was after September 11th so flying was even more intimidating. But knowing my family was on the other end made it easier, so IRead MoreThe Fear Of Flies, Heights, Clowns757 Words   |  4 PagesEverybody has a fear of something. A fear of snakes, heights, clowns. Some fears are more common, like Arachnophobia-the fear of spiders. And some fears aren’t as common, like Ombrophobia-the fear of rain. As irrational as they might sound to others, all fear s are real to the person with the fear. For someone who doesn’t have the same fear, they might think your fear isn’t scary or doesn’t make sense. People sometimes make fun of other people because of their fears. But you shouldn’t make fun ofRead MoreThe Hobbit Character Analysis783 Words   |  4 Pagesgoing on a journey. Similarly, I was very hesitant when my mother approached me about visiting my step-sister in Abilene, Texas. Normally, I love to go on a trip, but this time my mother said we were not traveling by car. We were flying to Texas. The thought of flying made me very nervous. Bilbo and I were giving an opportunity to experience something new and it made us very anxious; however, we both learned that we can have a lot of fun when we challenge ourselves. Just like, Bilbo, I traveledRead MoreDreams And Dreams Are Important Or Meaningless Essay943 Words   |  4 Pagesanxiety, stress, paranoia, or denial. Another common dream scenario that people experience is failing an exam. These dreams can occur to everyone including people that are no longer in school. If someone is still in school this could represent their fear or unpreparedness of an actual test. However, for someone that is no longer in school this could represent an event in their life that awakens the same emotions that they had before taking a test when they were in school. These dreams usually occurRead MoreMy Vacation - Original Writing1478 Words   |  6 Pagessun on my face. I also really just wanted to get the flying part of our trip over with. â€Å"Are you alright, dear?† my mom asked me as we took off our shoes at the security area, and walked through the metal detectors. â€Å"Yeah, I guess so.† I responded as I slipped my shoes back on my feet. I did not want her or my dad to know that I was scared. I was the type of person who always has to put on a brave face. It would not have helped to express my fears, because I was going to have to get on the plane regardlessRead MoreDescriptive Essay About Fear824 Words   |  4 Pagesthat fills a body at this time, arise because of fear. No one can’t help to calm those until the results of those sensations are known. So, can fear come from good things? When I was younger, I was never afraid of anything. I would climb trees and jump out of them with no fear. I climbed a two-story house and then climbed down, from the roof of the garage, and then back up to my bedroom. I would jump out of the windows on this house also. I had no fear that I could get hurt. I would swing as high asRead MoreTaking a Look at Conspiracy Theories1319 Words   |  5 Pagesthey are often formed on assumptions, absence of information, and fear. For these reasons a conspiracy can be formed around nearly any situation, disaster or event. Conspiracy theories are not just a modern phenomenon either, and they can be found throughout human history, but with todays technology it has become easier than every to spread these ideas around. These ideas propagate due to the culture surrounding the world, and the fear individuals have of the unknown. Many people prefer elaborate storiesRead MoreAnalysis Of Alison Gopniks Possible Worlds : Why Do Children Pretend1471 Wor ds   |  6 Pagesthe narrator is described as a simple man in search of happiness. The narrator comes from a poor, but imaginative upbringing that leads him into the path of becoming a pilot. As a child, he formed fantasies placing him in the position of a pilot, flying across cities such as â€Å"Bombay, Cairo, Paris, New York† (Winterson 283). Without, his imaginative childhood, ideas of ever becoming a pilot would not have happened. Counterfactuals thoughts that allowed him a glimpse at his future. Counterfactuals

Saturday, May 9, 2020

Engineers in Society An Ethical Approach Essay - 2403 Words

Engineering is considered as one unique field in the society. Be it locally or globally, there would always be growing demand to solve problems. But engineering is just not a career to help resolve issues of daily lives; it has become a key path to development in many aspects. With such complex diversity, engineers nowadays need more than just a handbook to contribute to the society. In Malaysia alone, there are more unregistered engineering undergraduates than registered Professional Engineer (PE) that work in government private sectors. This raises a question: Does that mean majority of unregistered engineers do not have to abide by the code of professional conduct regulated by Board of Engineers Malaysia (BEM) Institute of Engineers†¦show more content†¦Generally, society is an aggregate group of people who live together in a community where there exist bonds of interactions between the members of the community. Engineers, as one of the vital member of the community pla y important role in maintaining the harmony of the human interactions. Let’s take an example of flash flood case in Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur as the capital of the country has always faced this inevitable incident happening every year of monsoon season. Despite its metropolitan status, the people living there are still affected by this disastrous event; causing difficulties in normal running activities and so on. Solutions to this problem have been proposed number of times, however consideration of the city’s heavy traffic make it hard to execute the plans. Thanks to the innovative ideas of the engineers, they have figured out a best way to resolve the problem of channeling flood water and reducing vehicle traffic flow at the same time. To quote this idea of â€Å"kill two birds with one stone†, engineers have launched the plan of constructing underground dual tunnel for solving the problems that have haunted the people of the capital city. So if we take this core of the scenario back to the situation, a professional engineer with well-built reputation has to set the notion of bringing the good idea toShow MoreRelatedEngineering Ethical Responsibility And Environment Essay1401 Words   |  6 PagesName: Instructor: Course: Date: Engineering Ethical Responsibility to Environment Introduction â€Å"The rationale for teaching ethics to engineers seems fairly obvious. Their work has an enormous impact on the world.† Johnson. Discussion of an engineer’s inherent interaction with the environment and environmental needs leads to an engineer’s responsibility to the environment. Since Joseph R. Desjardins report on environmental responsibilities, engineers are supported to design their project in totalRead MoreCode Of Ethics Of Ieee. Computer Society1597 Words   |  7 Pages1Introduction Today, established ethical frameworks play a vital role in companies and organisations, espe- cially in big ones. Ethical framework, also known as code of conduct and code of ethics, is a set of guidelines, recommendations and rules, which specify expected behaviour and possible options how to make ethical decision, under different circumstances. It is crucial for every institution to set up ethical framework in order to prevent specific problems and to have es- tablished policy toRead MoreEngineering : Engineering And Ethics917 Words   |  4 PagesSara Pfatteicher in her book Introduction to post disaster engineering and ethics describes engineers as â€Å"design under constrains†. She describes the main three constrains which engineer faces. Complexity: Engineers are not in a technical vacuum they have to interact with various types of personnel like stake holders, clients, various departments in the company, even general public, etc. Constraints: Engineers can design and deploy products which are maximally safe, efficient and effective in a perfectRead MoreThe Rights Of A New Community1725 Words   |  7 PagesRights theory From the proper rights ethical theory the particular proper rights established with a contemporary society are usually protected along with offered the best concern. Protection under the law are usually accepted as ethically accurate along with legitimate considering that a substantial or even lording it over populace gives all of them. Folks may also give proper rights upon others as long as they have the opportunity along with means to accomplish this. 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Strubel believes that as we move into the future the demands faced by engineers will be ever greater and hence the dangers of making wrong decisions will also increase, if engineers are left to think autonomously. Read MoreThe Case Against Perfection by Michael Sandel983 Words   |  4 Pagesthe near future regarding genetic engineering. The ethics behind genetic engineering have been discussed and argued for years now. Some arguing points often include competitive advantages, playing God, and the polarization of society, but Sandel takes a different approach in explaining society’s â€Å"unease† with the morality of genetic engineering. Broadcasted through several examples throughout the book, Sandel explains that genetic engineering is immoral because it takes away what makes us humanRead MoreThe Social Responsibility Of Engineering1385 Words   |  6 PagesIn a modern society engineering activities including professional, based on scientific knowledge, social responsibility and human-dimension design and operation of technical devices plays an increasingly important role. Modern engineering professionalism involves not only the development of scientific bases of design engineering, but also awareness of the purposes, meanings and engineering problems in general, its place in the culture of the tw enty first century. Of great importance is an understandingRead MoreRole Of A Professional Civil Engineer1378 Words   |  6 Pagesthere are some key works that engineers doing in our daily life. Moreover, this article will introduce how civil engineers do for their professional. And what kind of ethics that engineers require to be respect. In addition, how do they practice to solve issues to avoid failure generate again. This report will shows the roles of engineers do in manufacturing industry and what kind of works that they need to complete. Base on a large number of requirements that engineers need to practice to engage inRead MoreThe Professional Engineers Of Ontario1384 Words   |  6 Pagesprofessions. It is in the public’s best interest that these professionals are knowledgeable and driven to progress society in a responsible manner. This includes acting in an ethical manner that aligns with the personal and corporate standards expected of members in a particular profession. The Professional Engineers of Ontario (PEO) is in place to regulate such behavior among engineers and protect the common interest of the Ontario community. At the end of this paper it will be evident that public

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The effects of technology on teenagers Free Essays

The modern technological world is swiftly changing and advancing before our very eyes. Technology has become part of our every day lives with, mobile phones, laptops, iPods, Wi-Fi spots available nearly everywhere, mp3 players and an enormous array of gaming consoles – there is no avoiding it. Technology has fully developed into the 21st century and seems to have brought with it an unending list of potential detriments. We will write a custom essay sample on The effects of technology on teenagers or any similar topic only for you Order Now These especially have negative effects on teenagers although it is argued that technology may have also provided a positive impact on today’s youth, for instance, an increase in social activity. I myself, being a teenager of the 21st century cannot even begin to fathom the capabilities of technology. The possibilities are literally endless, however if used without discretion it could also create a generation that solely relies on technology for satisfaction and happiness. The first main problem technology brings to teenagers is the Internet – a global network connecting millions of computers. Now you may be failing to see what the problem is in this description but the budding dangers of the Internet are extremely high and are all around even if they don’t seem obvious at first. Seeing as the Internet is a huge part of a teenager’s life because it provides so many positive opportunities, it isn’t hard to fall into the easy traps of the Internet. For example information such as pictures, projects, videos and documents can be sent with a click of a button; it primarily simplifies teenage life. So, where is the issue in this? The key issue is that whatever goes on the Internet can never truly be gone, even after it has been deleted. The moment that something is posted online, it falls into the hands of millions of strangers who can then download that photo or video, or save a copy of that post. My main point is that what goes on the Internet stays on the Internet and could most likely end up downloaded on someone’s computer. Recently, this issue has affected more and more teenagers. This is mainly because the youth of today are so used to using the Internet, it has become a part of their life but so many are unaware of how to stay safe online. In addition to potentially putting yourself in danger at the click of a button, technology can also take a toll on your behaviour. As teenagers we are still discovering ourselves and establishing our identities. The majority of us have a strong desire for acceptance in society and the images that are available for teenagers to see on the Internet or on television have a strong effect on the process of becoming who we are. These images often stimulate the ideals of the perfect body or how you should behave, especially for young girls. In one study, 69% of girls said that models they see on television fix their idea of what a perfect body shape is. With this much influence from technology it isn’t surprising that eating disorders have grown 400% since 1970. Girls as young as eight years old are becoming conscious of their weight because of these ideals that are set by the world of technology. As upsetting as these statistics are, it does reflect life for young people in the 21st century. Most teenagers can say they have been influenced by the images they see online but the real problem that technology brings is that nowadays, more often than not; these influences are being taken to extremities. Most importantly, technology can be affecting our health. During the past 20 years, obesity in young people has risen drastically and the main contributor is technology. Today, teenagers spend a lot more time in front of the television, or playing video games or using computers. Technology has become a constant companion, completely replacing the idea of active play. More than 40 studies have proven that technology contributes to an inactive lifestyle and weight gain in teenagers. Therefore, this issue is also a reflection of teenage life nowadays as child obesity has become a social epidemic Overall, technology is the perfect example of what life is like in the UK in the 21st century. It is the one thing that has developed the most throughout the years; almost to an extent where people rely on it so much they cannot live without it. It is certainly a huge aspect of young people’s lives as a recent survey showed that 93% of all teenagers aged 12-17 uses the Internet or emails. The worrying statistic is that 58% of teens don’t believe that posting photos or other personal information on social networking sites is unsafe. Things like this are an even bigger aspect of teenage life and unfortunately also reflects life in the 21st century as teenagers are becoming increasingly active online and are at a high risk of falling into the trap of online predators. Nevertheless, I am not completely against technology. I am part of that 93% of teenagers and of course it does have its benefits too, such as educating us, making life easier and simply for its entertainment and social capabilities. How to cite The effects of technology on teenagers, Essays

Tuesday, April 28, 2020

With close reference to language examine how fitting a close Act 5 scene II forms to the play Essay Example

With close reference to language examine how fitting a close Act 5 scene II forms to the play Paper In order to show that Act 5 scene ii, is a fitting close to the play Hamlet. I will be looking at how the characters have been brought to a close. I will also be looking at themes and the importance of order being restored in the court at the end of the play. The scene ties up all the relationships that were formed during the course of the play. Hamlet and Horatio, a friendship that we have seen grow and strengthen through the course of the play is broken by Hamlets death. The close connection that Hamlet shared with his mother is separated by their deaths. The unhealthy relationships that were formed, like that of Claudius and Laertes. They become victims of their own trap and are parted from each other. Starting off with the characters, We defy augury. There is special providence in the fall of a sparrow. If it be now, tis not to come; if it be not to come, it will be now; if it be not now, yet it will come. The readiness is all. There is considerable change in Hamlets character since the last time we saw him, that is before he went on his sea voyage to England. When we first met him in Act 1 scene ii, Hamlet was a lonely character, still mourning his fathers death and very un-happy about his mothers o er-hasty marriage to his uncle Claudius. We will write a custom essay sample on With close reference to language examine how fitting a close Act 5 scene II forms to the play specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on With close reference to language examine how fitting a close Act 5 scene II forms to the play specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on With close reference to language examine how fitting a close Act 5 scene II forms to the play specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer After the encounter with his dead fathers ghost he puts on an antic disposition and uses this strange behaviour to discover whether or not his uncle Claudius is guilty of killing his father. After the sea voyage to England, Hamlets character is now tranquil, and his tone is more like a Prince. He speaks in detail now to Horatio, of his sea passage to England; he rarely spoke in detail to anyone, most of his conversations to any of the characters consisted of a few vague sentences. He has also come to the conclusion that providence is guiding him and that everything depends on the will of God, as he says Theres a divinity that shapes our ends, Rough-hew them how we will- Hamlets attitude toward destiny has also changed, he will now wait for his chance to do the right thing, that is kill Claudius. He now defies augury because he doesnt want to allow himself to plan his future. This probably explains why he brushes aside the suspicious feelings that he has about the duel he has accepted to play in against Laertes. He now makes it clear that he wanted to be the King of Denmark after his fathers death as he says of Claudius; Poppd in between thelection and my hopes, Thrown out his angle for my proper life {65-66}. Hamlet in this scene seems to recognise death as something that we have to accept in our lives and something that we have to be prepared for; as he says If it be now, tis not to come; if it be not to come, it will be now; if it be not now, yet it will come. The readiness is all. He has matured emotionally as well, as in Act 3, scene i, 55- 56 he says To be or not to be,. And in Act 5, scene ii, 208 he says Let be. Osrics main function in the play is to invite Hamlet to a fencing match against Laertes. He fulfils this function, but in a very dramatic manner. He is a foppish character, and given to excessive courtesies. His pompousness is very symbolic of the false fai ade that enveloped the English court. The character of Osric represents the corrupted State of Denmark, as Hamlet says to Horatio; he and many more of the same bevy that I know the drossy age dotes on. Shakespeare probably inserted this character into the last scene to give the audience a last glimpse of the corrupted court, before the human canker was destroyed. He allows Hamlet to be witty, and brings him some comic relief after Ophelias death. His language is full of flattery, he calls Hamlet My Lord even as Hamlet insults to his face him calling him a waterfly. The Elizabethans enjoyed word-play or punning on words. Hamlet too enjoyed playing with words, when conversing with members of court, and also his mother and Claudius. Polonius was often a victim of Hamlets word-play. Osric who is seen as a variant of Polonius, too becomes a victim of Hamlets love for punning on words, as we see in Act 5 scene ii, lines 93- 94. Hamlet No, believe me, `tis very cold, the wind is northerly. Osric {taking off his hat } It is indifferent cold, my lord indeed. When Hamlet parodies Osrics style of speech, he collapses and stands confused. Osrics manners reflect the social and cultural manners that were to be observed by courtiers in the presence of royalty. Osric also revels the theme of appearance and reality. He may or may not have realised that he is deaths messenger, as the audience knows that behind the wager of the French rapiers and Arabian horses; lurks, death. He is a foil to the depiction of Yorick through Hamlets fond memories in the first scene of Act 5. The court jester was a genuine fool and Osric is a false fool. The Elizabethans believed that the perfect state for a body is a balance between the for humours. When the humours are unbalanced, the result is that humans are vulnerable to disease. The play also has the themes of blood and judgement, and reason and passion running in the play. The only character in Hamlet to have a balance between blood (passion) and judgement is Horatio. As Hamlet says of him and blest are those Whose blood and judgement are so well commeddled {3. 2. 66-67} Hamlet contrasts Horatios well- balanced temperament with his own rapidly swinging moods. Hamlet respects Horatio for his balanced nature, and it is probably this balance that assures Hamlet that Horatio is someone who can be trusted and whom he can confide in. Act 5 scene ii, brings this close friendship between Hamlet and Horatio to an end. Through out the play we have seen Horatio as one of Hamlets closest friends, unlike Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, he keeps away from the Kings plotting and scheming against Hamlet. Hamlet puts all his trust in him; he was with Hamlet when the ghost of the Old King Hamlet appeared, he helps Hamlet in The Mousetrap by keeping an eye on Claudiuss reaction to the play, Hamlet writes to him informing him of his arrival into Denmark, he is with Hamlet when Osric invites Hamlet to play in the duel against Laertes and Hamlet tells him that he wouldst not think how ill alls here about my heart; and about the uncertainty that he feels about the duel. We see the closeness and belief that Hamlet has in Horatio, when Horatio says hell drink the last of the poisoned wine so that he too may die with Hamlet. Hamlet stops him and says Give me the cup. Let go, by Heaven Ill hat. O God, Horatio, what a wounded name, Things standing thus unknown, shall I leave behind me if thou didst ever hold me in thy heart, Absent thee from felicity awhile, And in this harsh world draw thy breath in pain To tell my story. This is also a fitting end to the play, as Hamlets story will be told Claudius: O yet defend me, friends. I am but hurt. {5. ii. 317} The power that Claudius obtained when he took over the throne of Denmark, has gone to his head by the end of the play. In the quoted line we see that he is trying his hardest to cling on the crown, he doesnt want to let go of the authority and position that he had murdered his brother for. He tells the assembled members of court that he is but hurt. Claudius has caused a lot of disorder in the State. By usurping the throne, he has unbalanced the order of succession to the Throne. By right, on the demise of the Old King Hamlet, his son Hamlet, could take over sovereignty of the State. But by Claudius taking over the throne and marrying his sister-in-law, he has caused the spirit of the Old King to rise out of his grave in order to seek revenge and avenge his murder. Claudiuss hineous act, that is killing his brother in order to be King, and then his plotting and scheming against Hamlet, for example sending him to England to be killed, the duel and the poisoned wine; reflects the social ideas of revenge in the Elizabethan era. No, no, the drink, the drink! O my dear Hamlet! The drink, the drink! I am poisond. One can just hear the agony with which Queen Gertrude cries out her last words to her son. Her warning about the wine shows her true love and concern for Hamlet. Shes always wanted the best for him. For example in Act 5, scene i, when she is scattering flowers into Ophelias grave she says to the dead Ophelia, that she hoped that she would have been Hamlets bride; because she knew how much Hamlet adored Ophelia, and that his behaviour towards her changed after his fathers death and his mothers o er-hasty marriage. During the duel she asks him to wipe the sweat off his face, she drinks to his fortune, and then warns him not to drink the wine, so that he may not have the same fate as her. The theme of appearance and reality which appears though out the play also comes to a close in this scene. The mask of being a good King, that Claudius wears around is ripped apart by Hamlet in this scene. We see the real Claudius, who is a villain, villain, smiling, damned villain! {1. v. 106}. His true nature is exposed to the whole court when Hamlet kills him in the hall. In Act 4 scene vii, the King proposes a fencing match between Hamlet and Laertes. Claudius does this in order to protect himself from the rebellious Laertes. He uses Laertes s anger toward Hamlet, to his advantage. He tells Laertes that the foil that he will use will be unbated or unblunt. The messenger they will use to invite Hamlet to play in the match will be one who will praise Laertes s excellence. Claudius has to do this to make Laertes appear as the stronger player, when he knows that Hamlet is the stronger and better fencer. He appears to be supporting Hamlet by betting that Hamlet will win, when in reality he is actually plotting Hamlets death. The duel which Hamlet has been asked to play in against Laertes appears to be a friendly match. But behind the wager of French rapiers and Arabian horses, lurks, death. But we the audience know that there is poison and the intended outcome is Hamlets death. Duels in Shakespeares time were fought for the sake of honour. Fencing in Shakespeares time was a form of sporting entertainment and was also used to settle disputes. Fencing matches soon became socializing events. The pearl that the King will throw into the flagon of wine and drink from or rather make Hamlet drink from when Hamlet give the first or second hit, Or quit in answer of the third exchange, {5. vii. 253-254}. Here again he is using an extravagant gesture to hide the fact that he will be putting poison in the flagon of wine. The Elizabethan culture consisted of a lot of noisy displays, and hence Claudius orders that the cannons be fired for every hit made by Hamlet. Ill be your foil, Laertes. {5. vii. 240} Hamlet is saying that hell appear to be the weaker player, so that in his obliviousness, Laertes s skill will shine like a jewel; as the word foil means background to show off a jewel. Before the duel begins, Hamlet asks for Laertes pardon for his behavior at Ophelias funeral. Laertes appears to accept his love, but when presented with the foils he pick up the Unbated and envenomd foil. By Hamlets antic disposition coming to an end, th rough his death; the theme of appearance and reality comes to an end. Hamlet is a revenge tragedy. But isnt like the traditional revenge tragedies, where the protagonist was driven by vengeance. In contrast Hamlet delays taking revenge on Claudius while he was praying, thinking his soul would go to heaven instead of being damned for eternity. The traditional revenge tragedies ended with a corpse strewn stage, and a hero coming to restore order to the disrupted State, which is parallel to what happens at the end of the play Hamlet. Seneca published a lot of tragedies, and he had a very strong impact on Shakespeare. Some of the features of Senecan drama can be found in Hamlet; example appearance of a ghost calling for revenge, displays of violence that resulted in a corpse strewn stage. A revenge tragedy has to have some element of victory in it. Death, Hamlet and Fortinbras stand triumphant in the end of the play. There is a lot of talk of death in the play. Claudius killing the Old King Hamlet, Hamlet killing Polonius. Claudiuss plot to have Hamlet killed, Hamlets letters to have Rosencrantz and Guildenstern killed upon arrival in England instead of himself, Ophelias supposed suicidal death. The Queen drinking the poisoned wine, the King being killed by Hamlet with the poison that has killed his father, mother, and which will also take him away from this world. Laertes and Hamlets death due to a wound each of them received from the envenomd sword. Hence we see that death scores victory as Fortinbras says O proud Death, What feast is toward in thine eternal cell, That thou so many princes at a shot So bloodily has struck? {5. ii. 357-360} Hamlet is victorious because he has avenged his fathers death by killing Claudius. He has his dying wishes fulfilled, that is for his story to be told and for Fortinbras to take over the Danish throne. But most of all it is Fortinbras who is most triumphant. In Act 1 scene i, we are told that he wanted to recapture whatever land his father had lost to King Hamlet. Now in Act 5 scene ii, we see him returning victorious from Poland, and upon arrival in Denmark, he is presented with Denmarks Sovereignty as per Hamlets dying wishes. Order played a very important role in the Elizabethan world. They that the stability of a country depended on the stability, and strength of the Government heading it. Hence if the Government was corrupted the rest of the State would get corrupted as well, as we see happen in Hamlet. Claudius was driven by the desire for power, and authority over Denmarks Sovereignty that he would do anything to it. Even if it meant killing his own brother, and causing the break-up of families and the deaths of innocent people in the process. The Elizabethan audience would have been very disturbed with the appearance of the ghost in Act 1 scene I, as Marcellus says in Act 1 scene iv Something is rotten in the State of Denmark. And to restore their frame of mind, Fortinbras is reintroduced into the play, at this stage to restore order in the troubled State of Denmark. The anxieties that we see in Hamlet, that is who should be ruling Denmark now that the old monarch, King Hamlet is dead; reflect the situation that England was in, near the time when Hamlet was first performed. Claudiuss assassination of Hamlet, would have brought to mind the things that the audience would have heard about the threats to Elizabeths life. Act 5 scene ii, is a fitting close to the play Hamlet. The scene brings to an end all the corruption that Denmark was steeped in. All the characters who aided then human canker example Polonius, Ophelia, Rosencrantz and Guildenstern and Laertes; and the victims of Claudiuss deviousness, Hamlet ,the Queen Gertrude and Claudius himself are dead. These characters meet their end either through carnal, bloody, and unnatural acts, accidental judgements, casual slaughters or Of deaths put on by cunning and forcd cause. When Hamlet puts Denmark in the hands of Fortinbras and dies on the throne, he is bringing an end to all the corruption that Denmark suffered during Claudiuss reign. Hence we see that Act 5 scene ii, is a fitting close to the play Hamlet because, all the relationships, corruption and plotting that had begun in the beginning of the play has come to a halt, and has ended. We are given a last insight into the characters of Claudius and Gertrude, in their dying lines. O my dear Hamlet! The drink, the drink! I am poisond. We see her love for her son Hamlet. And her loyalty toward Claudius, even while on her death bed she wont give away his secret; that he has poisoned the wine to kill Hamlet. O yet defend me, friends. I am but hurt. Very characteristic of Claudius, who was possessive of the power and authority he had gained by killing his brother. He is so possessive of the power and authority that he is not willing to give it up, even when he is dying. The most important element that makes this scene a fitting close to the play is the restoration of order into the troubled state of Denmark. In his dying speech Hamlet hands over Denmarks Sovereignty to Fortinbras. This would have put the Elizabethan audiences mind at rest, as they strongly believed in order; and considered it extremely essential in the running of a country.